Color management workflow will determine how well your print output will match the image on your computer’s screen. When it doesn’t, there are plenty of reasons why, but are usually due to improper Color Management. Essentially, one or more of the settings in your color workflow is incorrect.
Often, the majority of color management issues can be traced to the lack of proper monitor calibration, including White-point, Gamma, and/or an incorrect setting of the working Color-Space the files are viewed and corrected within. White-point is actually the neutral color balance of the monitor screen measured in degrees Kelvin, (see Tim’s article about Color Temperature for more information) and can vary widely from device to device.
Setting the White Point
The most reliable calibration will be achieved by using a plug-in device that measures the output of your computer screen. The probe is packaged with software that will take you through a step by step procedure to accurately set your monitor to the correct gamma and white-point. The software will also create a monitor profile that will minimize variations in visual output for your specific monitor.
These products are available in a variety of styles, features, and price ranges. If you plan to do any color correction to your digital files, it’s an essential tool to have. You will need to verify and re-calibrate your monitor every few weeks or months, depending on use.
Setting the Gamma
Gamma refers to a specific value of brightness and contrast. One of the key differences between Mac’s and Windows PC’s is the Default Gamma used on each platform. Macs generally use a gamma setting of 1.8, and Window’s use a setting of 2.2 which is the default gamma defined within the sRGB Color-space.
In addition, most monitors are only capable of accurately representing colors in sRGB. You will want to make sure that the default working color space in Photoshop or raw file processor is also set to sRGB. Our Noritsu Pro 32 Digital imaging equipment is set up to print using sRGB so make sure to prepare your images accordingly.
Photographers that will be publishing their images in magazines or through offset printing will probably want to stay in the Adobe 1998 RGB color-space since this generally works better when CMYK conversion will be required for offset printing.
Keep in mind that to accurately view and correct digital images in this space you will need to upgrade your monitor to a device that is capable of displaying the extended dynamic color range.
Output Devices and Color Space
We use Adobe 1998 when capturing images with our multi-pass scanning and when printing on our CANON PRO 4000 large format inkjet printer to make Studio Giclee’s.
Although files shot in Adobe 1998 can be converted to sRGB, this will only add time to file preparation with no direct quality benefit when printing to photo output devices like our Noritsu QSS 3202 printer.
Mismatches of these two color spaces can produce unintended and inferior results, so be sure to submit files in the appropriate color-space for the desired output type. When setting the defaults, we have found that using “Perceptual” as the rendering intent usually produces the most pleasing results.
Finally, make sure that your color correcting monitor is located in a stable viewing environment where the ambient lighting will always be about the same. Also, avoid working in rooms with brightly colored walls as they will “skew” your color perception to favor the dominant color of the room. This is key to reliable color management.
Try to have a neutral gray card or background in your workspace so that you can “refresh” your vision from time to time. If using a portable device, make certain to ALWAYS use it connected to AC power. Battery-powered devices typically dim the display to conserve power and also vary the brightness depending on ambient lighting conditions.
Exceptions to the Rule
Whenever possible, you should avoid consumer-grade laptop displays for critical color correction since their budget displays are often too “cold” and tend not to offer reliable color and/or density controls. The notable exception would be premium priced “Pro” systems that utilize Retina or O.L.E.D. displays. These displays, when properly calibrated, can be quite accurate as long as they are consistently used with AC power in a stable viewing environment.
Monitor Calibration Tools
We strongly suggest that every photographer utilize a Monitor Calibration Device and recommend one of the Datacolor SpyderPRO or ELITE series expert calibration systems.
These devices will help you calibrate your screen so that it will display images to an industry-standard brightness, contrast, and color balance and by periodically re-checking the monitor setup, you can be confident of getting reliable and consistent results.
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Watch Ross Jukes demonstrate monitor calibration using a Datacolor Spyder X Elite